Selenium is a popular name in the world of automation testing. It is a widely used open-source automation tool that allows you to define tests and analyze the results using pre-decided software.
Python is a simple language with a clean and concise syntax. Selenium with Python provides cross-platform compatibility, supporting multiple operating systems like Windows, Linux, and macOS.
Advanced Selenium techniques in Python will provide great flexibility and scalability by automating various tasks like form filling, button clicking, data validation, and many more. Python has “pytest- a robust test framework” that can be easily integrated with Selenium to provide advanced features like test reporting, parallel test execution, and text fixtures.
In this blog, we will deep dive into the world of advanced Selenium techniques in Python to enhance the efficiency, reliability, and maintainability of your automation testing efforts.
6 Advanced Selenium Techniques in Python
Below are the 6 advanced Selenium Techniques in Python that will enhance your overall automation testing experience.
Achieve Synchronization Using Implicit and Explicit Waits.
Implicit and explicit waits is an advanced Selenium technique in Python that not only improve the reliability of automation testing but also helps with synchronizing test scripts with web elements. Synchronizing is done to make sure that actions are performed only when the elements are ready.
Implicit and Explicit waits work quite differently. Implicit wait sets a time that will work globally for all elements, but explicit wait defines specific wait conditions for individual elements. Waiting time can be controlled in explicit wait, while implicit wait provides a buffer period for elements to load.
If you are working with complex applications like AJAX requests, you need to handle different scenarios effectively. There will be times when elements will load in an asynchronous manner. In cases like these, you will not know how much time it will take for an element to be available for testing.
Implicit and Explicit waits are used to handle this issue. They make sure that the automation scripts are robust and capable enough to handle dynamic web pages. The main aim of both implicit and explicit waits is to synchronize test execution with web elements. But they achieve this goal in different ways.
When to use Implicit wait and why
The implicit wait can be used when the waiting time to load elements across the application is the same for every element. This means the load time here is predictable and dynamic.
They are easy to implement and provide a buffer time for elements to appear. This reduces the chances of getting a “NoSuchElementException”.
When to use Explicit wait and why
The explicit wait can be used when the waiting time to load elements across the application is different for every element. They offer more control and flexibility and help improve test execution speed.
Have a Manageable Code Using the Page Object Model
The Page Object Model is a popular design model that helps in organizing web elements to create maintainable and reusable code. It helps in improving test code readability, maintainability and reduces code duplication.
The POM encapsulates all the related web elements within page classes so that they can be reused for different test cases. Here, a separate class is used to represent each page. So, whenever the application undergoes any kind of changes, it becomes easier to locate and update specific elements and their actions.
POM does not mix the working of two different aspects of automation testing. Test script logic and page-specific operations are handled separately. Test script deals with test flows and assertions, whereas page classes handle interactions with web elements.
Different team members work together to enhance the overall productivity of the software application. Developers build page classes and testers leverage those classes to create robust test cases.
With frequent updates, web applications change and evolve with time. When this happens, their elements and functionalities also change. Sometimes the changes are not so huge and nothing drastically affects the software. But in other cases, a simple change in one element can disrupt the entire workflow of the software. One thing leads to another, and now the system has so many errors to deal with.
The Page Object Model does not let this happen because it provides easy adaptability to changes. It minimizes the impact of change on other test cases and reduces the effort required to keep automation scripts up to date.
POM makes the purpose of the test clear and concise by providing readable and intuitive test scripts. It also provides improved test scalability by expanding the automation framework when the number of test cases grows. By adopting POM, you can easily enhance the quality of your web application testing.
Handling Frames and Windows to Enhance the Stability of your Automation Scripts.
Mastering the technique to handle frames and windows will help you automate various actions that involve iFrames, frames, and multiple browsing windows.
Handling frames effectively means accessing and interacting with the elements present within them. Certain elements like login forms, advertisements, or chat widgets are immersed within frames, making it difficult for developers to deal with them in a more precise and accurate manner.
But these advanced Selenium techniques in Python navigate within frames to provide comprehensive test coverage. Web applications open various tabs for necessary reasons. If there are pop-up windows or external links on your screen, there are chances that a new window/ tab will be opened.
Handling Windows features will help you in this situation by switching between windows and interacting with elements within each one of them. This is usually done in scenarios where testers want to perform actions on multiple windows or verify the content of a new window by clicking on the link.
Switching between frames and windows will allow you to simulate user interactions that involve switching contexts and replicate user behavior. This technique of simulating user interactions will make sure that your automation tests closely resemble real user experiences and validate the behavior of the application under test.
If you want to represent different types of content and functionalities using frames and windows, you can verify elements, actions, and interactions within these different contexts. This ability to provide comprehensive test coverage will make sure that there are no issues or inconsistencies due to the use of frames and windows.
Errors and exceptions can be avoided by properly handling frames and windows. This will automatically enhance the scalability and reliability of your test scripts. The advanced feature of handling frames and windows makes sure that your tests remain functional and continue to provide accurate results even after frequent changes and updates.
Provide Reliable and Valuable Insights by Effectively Handling Alerts and Pop-Ups.
The accuracy, stability, and efficiency of your automation testing can be increased by effectively handling alerts and pop-ups. You can use the alerts and pop-ups feature to display error messages, confirmations, or any other important information.
It is an advanced Selenium technique in Python that will not only capture but also validate the displayed messages and interact with user prompts during the testing process.
When an alert or pop-up is displayed on your screen, it requires user interaction to accept or dismiss it. You can automate these actions for seamless interaction with them during the test execution. These alerts make sure your application behaves as expected.
Pop-ups and alerts, if not handled properly, can interrupt the flow of test execution. These interruptions can cause test failures. This technique of uninterrupted test execution allows you to gracefully handle these elements. Error recovery mechanisms can be used to handle situations where these pop-ups trigger unexpected behaviors or errors in the application under test.
You can validate different functionalities, handle edge cases and make sure that the entire application is being tested properly. Coverage of test scenarios will automatically be increased if these “critical information” containing alerts are handled properly.
If you try to handle these alerts and pop-ups manually, a lot of your time and effort will be wasted. That is why it is recommended to use automation handling. Automation handling will execute tests at a much faster speed and increase the efficiency of your overall testing process.
This technique ensures that your tests cover all relevant scenarios, interact with user prompts seamlessly, and handle unexpected situations gracefully
Achieve Realistic Simulations Through Advanced Interactions
One important aspect of using advanced Selenium testing in Python is their advanced interactions, which involve simulating user interactions with a website or application to test whether it is working as expected or not.
Advanced interactions can help you identify and fix bugs and issues of the application in a much more efficient manner. When you perform manual testing, there are chances that some errors go unidentified. But that is not the case with advanced automation testing.
Here, testers can stimulate user interactions to verify that tooltips or dropdown menus appear correctly. By simulating keyboard inputs, you can test keyboard navigation or shortcuts. This technique ensures that your UI behaves as expected and provides a smooth user experience.
Advanced interaction can help you save time and effort. This way, you complete your testing process more quickly and efficiently, allowing you to focus on other aspects of your project.
You can also identify and fix issues that may be specific to certain browsers or platforms, and ensure that your application is working as intended across all devices. Using advanced interaction in automation testing can be a powerful way to improve the accuracy and efficiency of your testing process.
For example, let us suppose you are testing a website that has a login form. With advanced interaction, you can simulate a user entering their username and password. You can click the “login” button, and then verify whether they are logged in correctly or not.
Advanced interactions in automation testing can help you achieve more realistic simulations, improve test coverage, validate user interface responsiveness, handle complex user interactions, perform detailed validation, conduct accessibility testing, and efficiently automate complex workflows as well.
Headless Testing for Faster Test Execution
Headless testing is a technique used in automation testing that allows you to run tests on a website without a graphical user interface (GUI). An absent GUI means you can test more things in less time. It is an advanced Selenium technique that reduces the chances of test failures caused by environmental factors or browser inconsistencies.
Running tests in a headless mode enhances the security of your test environment. It can also help improve the reliability of your automated tests because it eliminates the risk of test failures due to issues with the GUI.
Normally, a GUI is used to interact with the website, but with headless testing, the tests are run in the background and are not visible to the user. Another benefit of headless testing is that it can be easily integrated with continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipelines. This means that you can automate your testing process and make it part of your development process.
Headless testing can help to improve scalability and reduce costs related to testing by eliminating the need for expensive hardware and software licenses. It improves debugging by providing more detailed error messages and logs.
It also enhances security by reducing the risk of attacks that target the GUI. Because there is no GUI, there are no chances of it getting attacked or exploited.
How LambdaTest Can Enhance Your Automation Testing Efforts
Alongside the above-discussed techniques, one important way to streamline automation testing for your applications is by using a tool like LambdaTest.
LambdaTest is a cloud-based testing tool that helps achieve optimum quality in functional web applications.
Here are a few primary features of LambdaTest that enhance your testing efforts.
Cross-Browser and Cross-Platform Testing
LambdaTest supports 3000+ real browsers and devices which provides exclusive access to a large audience.
Headless browser testing
The platform provides headless browser testing capabilities that improves testing efficiency with reduced resource consumption.
Parallel test execution
You can run parallels across different browsers which again saves time and accelerates the development cycles.
Screenshot and video recording
The platform provides the functionality to capture screenshots and videos for interactive debugging and identification of problems.
With this functionality, testing professionals can track bugs and errors in real-time. It enables early identification and rectification of problems.
From extensive integration, rich collaboration, high scalability and performance to geo-location testing, platforms like LambdaTest are playing a critical role in aiding modern testing processes.
Advanced Selenium techniques in Python can help you to enhance your automation testing and improve the quality of your software applications. Some of the advanced techniques that we have discussed in this blog include headless testing, advanced interactions, handling alert and pop-ups, handling frames and windows, the use of POM, and implicit and explicit waits.
These techniques can help to improve testing efficiency, scalability, and reliability, and can help you to identify issues more quickly and easily. It can also help reduce the time and effort required to test your applications, allowing you to focus on other important tasks, like developing new features or improving user experience.
Continuously expanding your knowledge and staying updated with the latest advancements in Selenium and Python is very important. Doing this will help you elevate your automation testing to new heights.
So, if you are looking to take your automation testing to the next level, be sure to explore the advanced Selenium techniques available to you today!