A chemical bond is the result of lasting attraction that exists between ions, atoms, or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond is the outcome of the electrostatic force of attraction caused electrons and nuclei. Atoms that manage to organize themselves in the steady pattern, means it features the tendency to complete or fill their outermost electron orbits.
There are 4 types of chemical bonds that are formed by atoms or molecules to yield the resultant compounds. The stability of the resultant compound is measured by knowing the chemical bond of the compound. The types of chemical bonds are:
- Ionic Bonds
- Covalent Bonds
- Hydrogen Bonds
- Polar Bonds
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding which includes the transfer of electrons from one atom or molecule to another. Here, an atom loses an electron and is in turn gained by another atom. When such an electron transfer takes place, one of the atoms in the molecule develops a “-ve“ charge and is known as an anion.
Another atom which develops a “+ve“ charge and is called the cation. The ionic bond gains strength from the difference in charge between the 2 atoms. The higher the charge difference between the cation and the anion, the stronger is the ionic bond in the molecule. Below picture pictorially represents the bond that is formed due to electron transfer.
A covalent bond indicates the sharing of electrons between atoms and is commonly seen in organic compounds. Compounds which includes carbon generally display this type of covalent bonding. The pair of electrons shared by 2 atoms now extend around the nuclei of atoms, leading to the creation of a molecule. Below figure shows the sharing of electron leading to the formation of a molecule.
The hydrogen bond is also known as H-bond. A hydrogen bond is a formed due to the significant electrostatic force of attraction witnessed between the covalently bound hydrogen atom and a stronger electronegative atom or group, especially the elements belonging to the second row of the periodic table which includes oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine.
The below figure displays the formation of a hydrogen bond.
Hydrogen bond creates a tendency for the hydrogen to get drawn towards the negative charges of any neighbouring atom. This type of chemical bonding is called a hydrogen bond. The hydrogen bond is accountable for various properties exhibited by water.
When 2 atoms that are connected by a covalent bond exert different attractional forces, producing an uneven charge distribution in the bond. The resultant bond is indicated as a polar bond. A polar bond is formed as an intermediate case between ionic and covalent bonding with one end having the lightly negatively charged molecule and the other end having a slightly positively charged molecule.
These mild imbalances of charge distribution seen in the water are shown in the figure.
Water is an ideal example to display the polarity of the molecule. Here, the oxygen end is lightly positively charged and the hydrogen ends are negatively charged. Hence, the polarity seen in water explains why some substances immediately dissolve in H2O and other substances do not dissolve.
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