Delivery is the process of transporting goods from a source location to a predefined destination. The general process of delivering goods is known as distribution. The study of effective processes for delivery and disposition of goods and personnel is called logistics.

Firms that specialize in delivering commercial goods from point of production or storage to point of sale are generally known as distributors, while those that specialize in the delivery of goods to the consumer are known as delivery services. Postal, courier company, and relocation services also deliver goods for commercial and private interests.

Thus, to effect a valid delivery, goods from one person to another must be transferred willingly and not by means of fraud, theft, or force, etc. Mere possession of goods does not amount to delivery of goods.

Below are different types of deliveries of various products and stuff:

Actual Delivery

Also known as physical delivery, actual delivery takes place when the goods are physically handed over by the seller or his/her authorized agent to the buyer or his/her agent authorized to take possession of the goods. If the seller has received the price but does not deliver the goods to the buyer, then buyer can sue the seller for price with reasonable interest.

Constructive Delivery

The term constructive delivery may be defined as the delivery when a third person in possession of the goods acknowledges holding goods on behalf of the buyer. Sometimes, at the time of sale, the goods are in possession of a third person (as godown keeper, carrier, and more) who acknowledges to the buyer that he holds the goods on the buyer’s behalf. In such cases, the delivery of the goods is said to be constructive delivery. This delivery type may happen in the following cases:

  1. Where the seller in possession of the goods agrees to hold them on behalf of the buyer.
  2. Where the buyer is in possession of goods and the seller agrees that the buyer holding the goods is the owner.
  3. Where a third person in possession of goods acknowledges to the buyer that he (the third person) holds the goods on behalf of the buyer.

Symbolic Delivery

Where the goods are bulky and heavy and it is not possible to physically hand them over to the buyer, delivery thereof may be made by indicating or giving a symbol. Here, the goods itself are not delivered, but the means of obtaining possession of goods is delivered. If the key of any store is delivered to any person, it will be considered the goods in the store are also delivered to that person. It is a symbolic delivery.

For example, delivering the keys of the warehouse where the goods are stored, or the keys of a purchased car to its buyer, bill of lading which will entitle the holder to receive the goods on arrival of the ship.

Other delivery types are the following:

• Implied Deliver

• Partial Delivery

• Mixed Delivery

• Delivery in Installments

• Short Delivery

• Delivery In Excess of Quantity

• Delivery of Goods of Inferior Quality

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